This analysis is based on 2022 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) data, collected from February 9 to December 31, 2022. The sample is representative of the Canadian population aged 12 years and older living in the provinces. Sampling and collection for the time period used in this analysis does not have adequate coverage to represent the entire population of the territories.

A recent dental visit refers to having visited a dental professional within the previous 12 months.

In this release, data on “racialized groups” are measured with the “visible minority” variable. The “non-racialized group” is measured with the category “Not a visible minority” of the variable, excluding Indigenous respondents. For the purpose of this study, Indigenous respondents are not part of the racialized group, nor the non-racialized group. “Visible minority” refers to whether or not a person belongs to one of the visible minority groups defined by the Employment Equity Act. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as “persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.” The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

In this release, “recent immigrants” refers to those who were admitted into Canada permanently less than 10 years before the survey was conducted. Established immigrants refers to those who were admitted into Canada permanently 10 or more years before the survey was conducted. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.

Indigenous identity is based on the self-reported answer to the question “Are you First Nations, Métis or Inuk (Inuit)? First Nations (North American Indian) includes Status and Non-Status Indians.” The CCHS does not collect data on reserves in the provinces. Consequently, the results discussed for First Nations people exclude those living on reserve. In addition, people living in the territories, including First Nations people, Métis and a large proportion of Inuit, are excluded, as well as the majority of Inuit living in Inuit Nunangat, the Inuit homeland. As a result, these exclusions may impact the estimates for Indigenous populations.

Beginning in 2021, the census asked questions about both the sex at birth and gender of individuals. While data on sex at birth are needed to measure certain indicators, as of the 2021 Census of Population, gender (and not sex) is the standard variable used in concepts and classifications. For more information on the new gender concept, see Age, Sex at Birth and Gender Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.

Given that the non-binary population is small, data aggregation to a two-category gender variable is sometimes necessary to protect the confidentiality of responses. In these cases, individuals in the category “non-binary persons” are distributed into the other two gender categories. Unless otherwise indicated in the text, the category “men” includes men (and/or boys), as well as some non-binary persons, while the category “women” includes women (and/or girls), as well as some non-binary persons.

A fact sheet on gender concepts, Filling the gaps: Information on gender in the 2021 Census, is also available.

2SLGBTQ+ refers to Two-Spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and those who use other terms related to gender or sexual diversity.

Respondents were included in the 2SLGBTQ+ population based on self-reported information derived from their sexual orientation, sex at birth and gender. The analysis of 2SLGBTQ+ individuals excludes respondents under the age of 15 years.

In this analysis, the population with at least one functional difficulty is defined as those who reported at least some difficulty in one of the six domains from the Washington Group Short Set on Functioning (WG-SS). The WG-SS looks at six functional health components including vision, hearing, mobility (walking or climbing steps), cognition (memory and concentration), self-care and communication. Respondents are asked about their level of difficulty (no difficulty, some difficulty, a lot of difficulty, cannot do at all) with these six functional health components. This indicator does not represent all functional difficulties and is designed to cover the most commonly occurring difficulties.

Respondents were considered as having at least one functional difficulty if they reported having “A lot of difficulty” or “Cannot do at all or unable to do” to at least one of the following activities of daily living: Difficulty seeing, even if wearing glasses; difficulty hearing, even if using a hearing aid; difficulty walking or climbing steps; difficulty remembering or concentrating; difficulty with self-care; difficulty communicating when using their usual language.

The net adjusted family income variable was obtained by linking to tax data when possible (77%) and imputed when not available. To calculate the adjusted net income from the T1 Family File of the individual the following variables were added up (NETINCUCCBRDSPC + UCCBR) for all members of a family.

  • NETINC: Net family income
  • UCCB: Universal Child Care Benefit
  • RDSPC: Amount of Registered Disability Savings Plan (Claimed)
  • UCCBR: Universal Child Care Benefit Repaid

In this release, when two estimates are stated to be different, this indicates that the difference was statistically significant at a 95% confidence level (p-value less than 5%).

For more information on survey definitions and methods, refer to the Statistics Canada survey information page Canadian Community Health Survey.

Also available today are new data on “work-family balance” and “work productivity” from the rapid response component of the CCHS. Data for the rapid response were collected from respondents from all provinces from July to December 2022. The rapid response on work-family balance includes questions on work interference with family life, responsibilities, activities, and vice versa. The rapid response on work productivity includes questions on absences from work and impact of health problems on ability to perform tasks at work. The data are now available in the Research Data Centres.